Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol.70, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2021Background: Today, although gadolinium based contrast agents have been frequently used in the field of medicine, there is limited data available whether gadolinium based agents affect the genome. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of gadoteric acid and gadoversetamide used as gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Material and methods: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was applied to human peripheral blood lymphocytes to assess the genotoxicity measured as micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPBs) and nuclear bud (NBUDs) frequencies. Furthermore, cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) was calculated to determine cytostasis. Lymphocytes were treated with gadoteric acid at concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 25 mM and with gadoversetamide at concentrations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mM for 48 h. Results: Gadoteric acid did not cause significant increase in MN, NBPs and NBUDs frequencies and CBPI values at any concentration. Gadoversetamide induced significantly increase MN formation at concentration of 2.5 mM, NBP formation at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 mM, and NBUD formation at concentrations of 0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 mM. Additionally, gadoversetamide exposure resulted in statistically significant decrease in CBPI values compared to the control at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mM. In addition, CBPI levels in response to concentrations of gadoversetamide was negatively and significantly associated with concentration. Conclusion: These findings show that gadoteric acid does not have genotoxic or cytotoxic potential, while gadoversetamide might have both genotoxic and cytotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. As a comparison, gadoversetamide was found more genotoxic and cytotoxic.