With the developments in cognitive psychology, language learners' beliefs have received considerable attention in the domain of language teaching and learning. One area that merits investigation as to what the learner brings to this educational process is learner attributions which are commonly defined as 'perceived causes of success and failure'. This paper investigated pre-service teachers' perceptions of student attributions and their performance in English. Attributions are categorized as either internal (for instance ability) or external (for instance task difficulty). Motivated by these theoretical concerns, the study investigated the attributions of 122 pre-service teachers majoring in English and the connections between attribution and proficiency and gender. The study concludes with a set of far-reaching pedagogical implications and suggestions for learner training and teacher action in the EFL classroom. The results underscore the need for pre-service students to become aware of their own perceptions with regard to students' success and failure in English.