The proximal caecum in quails consists of lymphoid and non-lymphoid structures. The caecal tonsils in the proximal part of the caecum are units of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in poultry. This study aimed to examine the histological characteristics of the proximal caecum, as well as compositions of dendritic cells (DCs) and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the caecal tonsil of quails. Tissue sections were stained with Crossman's triple, periodic acid-Schiff, Gordon and Sweet's silver, Congo red and methyl green-pyronin dyes, as well as immunohistochemically by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Caecal lymphoid tissue was located in the lamina propria and submucosa. Germinative centres were observed within the lymphoid tissue. Reticular fibres were mainly distributed in the border area of the germinal centre with only a few fibres scattered in the centre. Plasma cells were observed in the subepithelial region and germinal centres. Eosinophil granulocytes were prevalent in the lymphoid tissue. Additionally, CD83-immunoreactive DCs and MHC class II immunoreactive APCs were present in the subepithelial area and diffuse lymphoid tissue. While DCs were seen in the germinal centres of tonsillar units, APCs were rarely present in the germinal centres, but they were noticed around the germinal centres. In conclusion, the histological structure of the proximal caecum in quails and the distributions of some immunological cells in the caecal tonsils were revealed. Therefore, the defensive role of the caecal tonsils in the digestive system may be better understood, and comparative studies may be carried out.