The influence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on growth and enzyme activities in wheat and spinach plants

Cakmakci R. , Erat M., Erdoğan U., Dönmez M. F.

JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE, vol.170, no.2, pp.288-295, 2007 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 170 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jpln.200625105
  • Page Numbers: pp.288-295


A pot experiment in a greenhouse was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different N-2-fixing, phytohormone-producing, and P-solubilizing bacterial species on wheat and spinach growth and enzyme activities. Growth parameters and the activities of four enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD; EC, glutathione reductase (GR; EC, and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC were determined in the leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Konya) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), noninoculated and inoculated with nine plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: Bacillus cereus RC18, Bacillus licheniformis RC08, Bacillus megaterium RC07, Bacillus subtilis RC11, Bacillus OSU-142, Bacillus M-13, Pseudomonas putida RC06, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05 and RC14). Among the strains used in the present study, six PGPR exhibited nitrogenase activity and four were efficient in phosphate solubilization; all bacterial strains were efficient in indole acetic acid (IAA) production and significantly increased growth of wheat and spinach. Inoculation with PGPR increased wheat shoot fresh weight by 16.2%-53.8% and spinach shoot fresh weight by 2.2%-53.4% over control. PGPR inoculation gave leaf area increases by 6.0%-47.0% in wheat and 5.3%-49.3% in spinach. Inoculation increased plant height by 2.2%-24.6% and 1.9%-36.8% in wheat and spinach, respectively. A close relationship between plant growth and enzyme activities such as G6PD, 6PGD, GR, and GST was demonstrated. Plant-growth response was variable and dependent on the inoculant strain, enzyme activity, plant species, and growth parameter evaluated. In particular, the N-2-fixing bacterial strains RC05, RC06, RC14, and OSU-142 and the P-solubilizing strains RC07 and RC08 have great potential in being formulated and used as biofertilizers.