In this manuscript, the collapse of Mamluk State, which reigned in Egypt and Syria between the years 1250 and 1517 has been studied. Throughout our study, there found different reasons causing this collapse; the most important ones of which are political and economic. The fact that Mamluk System which had crucial role in Mamluk administration Mechanism and the problems lived along its north border are the fundamental collapsing reasons of the state. Indeed, the fights starting with Mongols and Armenians in the north of the state continued with Anatolian Turkmens and Timurids, eventually Ottomans coming from the same direction caused it to be collapsed. Mamluks were the commercial centre between east and west. At the same time, Syria owned a very industrious trade network between Anatolia. However, the geographical discoveries that Europeans carried out and the Portuguese not only military but also commercial activities in the Indian Ocean weakened Mamluks economically. In addition to this, military struggles along the north border of the state caused incompensable deficits in Mamluk finance. Consequently, when all these negative aspects combined with an unmodernized army, Mamluk State closed its era in 1517, when Ottoman army defeated it in Reydaniye, which was the end of a 267 year-old-state.