Several papers concerning abnormalities of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis during hyperthyroidism, have been published. Increased von Willebrand Factor (vWF) activity and high fibrinogen levels have been reported. However, there is controversy concerning the presence of a hypercoagulable state in hyperthyroidism. We investigated various hemostatic parameters in 41 hyperthyroid patients and compared them to 20 euthyroid controls. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, factors V, VII, VIII, IX and X activities, vWF, antithrombin III (AT 111), protein C, protein S, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), as well as common lipid variables, were measured. The relationships between serum thyroid hormones and these hemostatic parameters were examined. Compared with control subjects, fibrinogen, factor IX, vWF, AT III and PAI-1 were significantly increased in patients (p<0.05, p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.0001; respectively), whereas factor X and t-PA were decreased (p<0.05). We showed that free T-4 (FT3) levels were correlated with factor VIII activity (r=0.35, p<0.05). FT4, FT3 and TSH did not correlate with fibrinogen, vWF, AT III, t-PA, or PAI-1. AT III was inversely correlated with factor Vil activity (r=-0.48, p<0.01). Protein C and S were correlated with vWF levels (r=0.58, p<0.0001; r=0.55, p<0.0001, respectively). Protein C was inversely correlated with t-PA (r=-0.39, p<0.01). There was a negative correlation between triglycerides, LDL-C and F X (r=-0.45, P<0.05; r=-64, p<0.01, respectively). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was correlated with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies (in Graves' disease) and F IX activity (r=0.57, p<0.05 and r=0.39, p<0.05; respectively). We found important differences in the coagulatory/fibrinolytic parameters between the hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls. Hyperthyroid patients may experience vascular endothelial dysfunction and decreased fibrinolytic activity in blood. This endothelial activation may represent a situation with a higher thromboembolic potential. (C) 2002, Editrice Kurtis.