BackgroundThyroid cancer is a common endocrine cancer. Great progress has been made in resolving its molecular mechanisms in recent years. The molecular changes observed in thyroid cancer can be used as biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components in biological and metabolic pathways, such as developmental stages, signal transduction, cell maintenance, and differentiation. Hence, their malfunctioning can expose humans to malignancies. miRNA expressions have been shown to be dysregulated in different tumor types, like thyroid cancer, and may cause tumor initiation and progression. In previous studies, only cancer has been studied, and miRNA has been detected from the tissues in all the studies performed. In this study, we have focused on thyroid diseases such as bening nodules and Hashimoto's disease, which might be the cause of thyroid cancer, and have carried out miRNA tests in the blood samples taken from the arms thyroid patients.