Two main palaeoenvironments are reconstructed for the Paratethyan deposits at Yalova (Turkey). The investigated sections show the typical lithologic composition of the Neogene of NW Turkey, however, the palaeoecological context was so far unknown and the stratigraphic differentiation was still outstanding. In this study, molluscs, ostracods and fish remains are used as tools for the interpretations of the palaeoenvironmental situation. These biota reflect palaeoenvironments, represented by (1) the clastic section of the Kılıç Formation and (2) the Yalakdere Formation, which is characterized by marl, clay and coal sedimentation. While the Kılıç Formation comprises sediments of fluviatile deltaic systems, connected to lagoons with partly reduced water energy, the Yalakdere Formation exemplifies freshwater habitat, including stagnant water bodies with a seasonally slightly varying salinity and, at most, moderately flowing rivers.The investigated biota indicate a Late Miocene age of both the Kılıç and the Yalakdere Formation. Some species furthermore allow a more detailed stratigraphic assignment: the Yalakdere Formation corresponds to the Late Khersonian/Early Maeotian. Comparisons with contemporaneous faunas indicate connections to the Dacian, Euxinian and Caspian Basins and a weak Mediterranean influence. No occurrences of Central Paratethyan elements of the corresponding Late Pannonian time interval are evident.