The pigeon is one species among the numerous domestic animal types that contribute to the economy of Turkey as food and work, and provide diversion and pleasure for the nation's people. Pigeons are kept at the household level, usually in small numbers, by many hundreds of thousands of Turkish families, yet they have been subject to little study. This paper collates much of the information available (almost all in the Turkish language) to provide a brief history of the bird in Turkey. An inventory of the nine groups and 72 breeds that have been identified is presented. Some of these breeds are international in status, some are widespread in Turkey and some have only local distribution; many breeds have synonyms which are used in their areas of distribution. There is little government or academic support for pigeon breeders. The private Pigeon Breeders Association of Turkey and the Turkish Pigeon Federation are umbrella organisations for a number of breed clubs. In an initial attempt to standardise the national pigeon genetic resources, two of the more widespread breeds have been registered with the Animal Breeds Registration Committee of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock.