A new Schiff base compound has been synthesized by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)aniline.The title compound was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, and UV-Visible techniques.Its UV-Vis spectra was examined in polar and nonpolar solvents and in acidic and basic media. The crystal structure of the compound showed the OH group to be ortho to the imine group. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1) with a = 11.328(2), b = 6.125(1), c = 11.937(2) angstrom, V = 825.1(2) angstrom(3), D (x) = 1.543 g cm(-3) and Z = 2. An intramolecular O1- H center dot center dot center dot N1 [2.558(7) angstrom] hydrogen bond stabilizes the molecule. The compound has also been characterized by its antimicrobial activities. The ligand has been screened in vitro against the organisms Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Micrococcus luteus La 2971, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, the yeast cultures Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238, and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii DSM 3432.