Sequential and Simultaneous Photoinduced Radical and Step- Growth Polymerizations of Carbazole Functional Styrene

Celiker T., ALTINIŞIK S., Vaitusionak A., Kostjuk S. V., KOYUNCU S., Yağcı Y.

MACROMOLECULES, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.macromol.2c01558
  • Journal Name: MACROMOLECULES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, MEDLINE
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Photoinduced radical and step-growth polymerizations of carbazole functional styrene (vinyl phenyl carbazole, VPC) by sequential and one-pot strategies have been investigated. The obtained polymers were characterized by FTIR, H-1-NMR, GPC, UV-Vis, PL, CV, and BET analyses. The theoretical charge distribution and HOMO-LUMO calculation by DFT were well-matched with those obtained from optical and electrochemical measurements. In the sequential approach, visible light-induced free-radical photopolymerization of VPC by using bisacyl phosphineoxide results in the formation of linear polymers with side-chain carbazole moieties. The resulting polymers exhibit a smooth surface as a consequence of decreasing crystallinity. As evidenced by TEM analysis, the subsequent photoiniated step-growth polymerization of the carbazole groups by using diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI) yields hyperbranched and cross-linked polymers with the microspheres on the surface. In the one-pot approach, concomitant photoinitiated free-radical and step-growth polymerizations by using DPI results in the formation of cross-linked polymers with dispersed distribution. The total nitrogen uptake of VPC-based polymers by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area was found to be between about 150 and 190 m(2)/g at 77 K.