The genetic variation among a population of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum collected from oilseed rape fields in the Canakkale Province of Turkey was assessed using molecular and morphological markers. Seven microsatellite primer pairs (out of eight) revealed 32 clear polymorphic alleles among the 36 fungal isolates examined. An unweighted pair-group mean analysis dendrogram was generated using the genetic distance matrix with the 32 microsatellite alleles. The level of similarity was as low as 15% between some isolates indicating a high level of genetic diversity within the fungal population; 23 distinct isolates were found (at a genotypic diversity level of 63%). Among the collection of 36 isolates, 19 mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were identified; 10 MCGs included at least two isolates. Molecular and morphological data suggest that most of the isolates within a single MCG were identical; however, the isolates belonging to the MCG2 and MCG4 had variable microsatellite haplotypes and were morphologically dissimilar. The data suggest that there is possibly a high rate of outcrossing as well as evolutionary potential within the population of the pathogen in oilseed rape fields. This is the first report demonstrating the genetic and morphological variation within a population of S. sclerotiorum in Turkey.