XVII. Balkan Mineral Processing Congress, Antalya, Turkey, 1 - 03 November 2017, pp.697-704
Kaolin and clays form the basis of classical ceramics due to their plastic shaping properties. Clays usually occur under certain conditions, from the dissociation of feldspars or the dissolution of volcanic rocks. Besides the clay minerals formed by the collapse of the rocks, there are feldspar, quartz, mica, iron minerals (pyrite, hematite, goethite, etc.), carbonate minerals (Siderite - calcite) and rock deposits such as anatase. Minor minerals in the clays form raw material-induced defects on the surface of the tile. Due to the necessity of using the sources of regional raw materials, the minor minerals in the clays must be identified, reduced to a size that does not cause a defect, or completely removed. Especially the mica minerals cause breaks on the surface of the fired tile.
Clays and kaolin are used in floor and wall tile production recipes between 30-40%. 80-85% of the clays used in recipes are Regional clays (Şile - Konya - Söğüt) and 15-20% of them are Ukrainian clays.
In this study, the effects of clays originated Şile Region that are used at 30% on the glaze porcelain recipe were examined and the separation methods of impurities were sought. The clay sample used in production was subjected to sieve analysis in the laboratory and sieve residue was defined 150, 90, 64, 45 and 32 micron. Optical microscope and SEM images were taken. Optical microscope, chemical analysis and XRD analysis were also performed on the sieve residue given above. The type of impurities and their effects on the creation of defects in products have been diversified. It has been found that defect caused by impurities of raw materials is characteristic and vital on the product quality.
Along this finding; the possibility of reducing the effects of impurities through grinding the coarse sized impurities to finer size were studied. Also a new method for separating the impurities was suggested. A design of new separation system was developed in Kaleseramik production line in Can location of Turkey.