The seasonal growth pattern and reproductive biology of the rock pool prawn, Palaemon elegans, were studied in the southern Black Sea between February 2002 and January 2004. The seasonal von Bertalanffy growth parameters, computed from monthly length frequency distributions, were estimated as L-infinity = 47.8 mm total length (TL), K = 1.115 year(-1) for females and as L-infinity = 41.1 mm TL, K = 1.654 year(-1) for males. The seasonal oscillation in growth rate for females (C = 0.904) was larger than it was for males (C = 0.586). The slowest period of growth corresponded to June in females and February in males. The size at sexual maturity for females (TL50) was estimated as 33.8 mm TL. Ovigerous females were recorded from March to August and juveniles appeared in the benthic population in August. The ovarian development of the rock pool prawn was most probably initiated by photoperiod, whereas embryo development was accelerated with increasing water temperatures.