Evaluation of the mechanical excavation methods used in underground openings in Turkey

Altındag R., Sengun N., Ugur I., Akbay D., Demırdag S.

6th International Symposium on Tunnels and Underground Structures in SEE 2016, Split, Croatia, 16 - 18 March 2016, pp.44-55

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Split
  • Country: Croatia
  • Page Numbers: pp.44-55
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: No


In underground mining operations, excavation of underground openings are generaly performed for many different purposes such as waste storage, subway, highway, railway, irrigation, hydroelectric, sewerage and wastewater tunnels. In Turkey, these openings can be formed by various mechanical excavation equipments such as drilling-blasting method which has been used since 1980s. Today, in many cities, especially in Istanbul province of Turkey, mechanical excavation equipments such as Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM), Roadheaders and Hydraulic breakers are used for various purposes. Nowadays, the excavation of new metro and sewerage tunnels in Istanbul are considerably increasing and in the near future, it is estşmated that 10 Billion $ will be spent in Istanbul and totally 20 Billion $ for all Turkey for these purposes. In this study, spesifications of the excavated formation and the technical properties of the TBMs and Roadheaders used in various purposes in Turkey were summarized. Approximately around 50 field results and data obtained from these studies were evaluated which could be helpful to investments made in future.