Twenty durum wheat pure lines obtained from landraces collected from southwestern districts of Konya and 5 durum wheat cultivars were evaluated under rain fed conditions in Konya between 2005 and 2008 in a 3 replicates randomized complete block design to estimate genetic variation and heritability for grain yield and 6 quality traits. The overall goal of the study was to improve pure lines from durum wheat landraces for low input agricultural areas of the Central Anatolian region and similar environmental conditions. The broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 12.9% (particle size index) to 50.0% (semolina color). The highest expected genetic advance as a percentage of mean was recorded for grain yield (8.35%), followed by semolina color (5.50%). Mean grain yield values of the pure lines from landraces ranged from 1.85 to 2.85 t ha(-1). Out of 20 pure lines, 14 had above average grain yield of 4 standard cultivars. Based on mean performance, pure line 4 was superior with respect to grain yield; pure line 5 was superior with respect to mini SDS sedimentation and grain yield. Comparisons between the pure lines and the modern cultivars led to the conclusion that grain yield, protein content, mini SDS sedimentation, and semolina color of some pure lines were usually higher than those of modern cultivars. According to the results, some pure lines could be tested in winter durum wheat registration trials, and some lines could be used as genetic material to broaden the genetic basis of durum wheat breeding programs all over the world.