Long-term evaluation of masseter muscle activity, dimensions, and elasticity after orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients

Muftuoglu O., Akturk E. S., EREN H., GÖRÜRGÖZ C., Karasu H. A., ORHAN K., ...More

Clinical Oral Investigations, vol.27, no.7, pp.3855-3861, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00784-023-05004-3
  • Journal Name: Clinical Oral Investigations
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.3855-3861
  • Keywords: Electromyography, Masseter muscle, Orthognathic surgery, Ultrasonography, Ultrasound elastography
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: No


Objective: To evaluate changes in the masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery using electromyography (EMG), ultrasonography (US), and ultrasound elastography (USE) in individuals with skeletal class III anomaly over long-term follow-up and compare with a control group. Materials and methods: The study group included 29 patients with class III dentofacial deformities scheduled to undergo orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. The control group included 20 individuals with dental class I occlusion. Assessment of the masseter muscles using EMG, US, and USE was performed before orthognathic surgery (T1) and at postoperative 3 months (T2) and 1 year (T3) in the study group, and at a single time point in the control group. All assessments were performed at rest and during maximum clenching. Masseter muscle activity, dimension, and hardness were analyzed. Results: Electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during maximum clenching was increased at postoperative 1 year but did not reach control group values. On ultrasonography, the masseter muscle showed minimal changes in dimension at postoperative 1 year compared to preoperative values and remained below control group values. The postoperative increase in masseter muscle hardness at rest and during maximum clenching persisted at postoperative 1 year. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that after orthognathic surgery, additional interventions and much longer follow-up are needed to ensure better muscle adaptation to the new occlusion and skeletal morphology. Clinical relevance: All assessment methods are useful for comprehensively evaluating changes in the masticatory muscles after orthognathic surgery.