The genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin as one of the statin drugs was assessed by chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) and DNA damage by comet assay in the human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rosuvastatin was used at concentrations of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mu g/mL for these in vitro assays. In all assays, a negative and positive control were also included. CA frequencies were significantly increased in all concentrations at 24 hours and significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 mu g/mL at 48 hours, compared to the negative control. Rosuvastatin has a decreased mitotic index (MI) at 0.5- and 1-mu g/mL concentrations at 24 hours and at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mu g/mL at 48 hours. A significant increase was observed for induction of MN in all treatments, compared to the negative control. Cytokinesis-block proliferation indices were not affected by treatments with rosuvastatin. In the comet assay, significant increases in comet tail length and tail moment were observed at 0.0625-, 0.5- and 1-mu g/mL concentrations. Comet intensity was significantly increased in all concentrations except 0.0625 mu g/mL. According to these results, rosuvastatin is cytotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic in human peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies should be conducted in other test systems to evaluate the full genotoxic potential of rosuvastatin.