This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different irrigation water salinity level on chromosomes and shoots of wheat with three different ploidy level (diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid). Greenhouse experiment revealed that irrigation water salinity level had significant effects on shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot length and root length (P < 0.05). The effects of ploidy level and cultivar shoot dry weight and root dry weight were also found to be significant (P < 0.05), but the effects on shoot length and root length were not significant (P > 0.05). Negative effects of salinity on shoot and root were started at 8 dS m(-1). Also hexaploid wheat was more tolerant then tetraploid and diploid wheat to salinity. It was not determined that possible effects of irrigation water salinity to structure of chromosomes with current equipment and methods. Cell divisions were normal, but decreasing cell division rates were observed with increasing irrigation water salinity levels.