The aim of the study is to determine and compare micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in patients with laryngeal carcinoma and healthy controls. The study was conducted in the School of Medicine of Onsekiz Mart University. A total of 102 volunteers, 51 of whom had laryngeal carcinoma and 51 of whom were healthy control subjects, participated in this study. The Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes taken from patients and controls. We evaluated MN, NPBs and NBUDs frequencies in patients with laryngeal carcinoma and compared the results with those in the control group. The frequencies of MN, NPBs and NBUDs of patients with laryngeal carcinoma were found significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.01, P = 0.004, P = 0.01, respectively). MN, NPB and NBUD frequencies were also compared in the patients with and without pesticide exposure, and the means of all frequencies was higher in patients with pesticide exposure (P = 0.001, P = 0.02 respectively). The MN, NPBs and NBUDs frequencies of the patients with laryngeal cancer were significantly higher than those of the control group, and pesticide exposure might be a risk factor that increases genomic instability and risk of laryngeal cancer.