Metabolic disorders and abnormal levels of circulating adipokines have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the correlations of vaspin plasma levels and metabolic parameters between two groups: patients with BD and mentally healthy persons. We measured plasma levels of vaspin, metabolic parameters, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in 101 patients with BD and 90 healthy control (HC) subjects. Patients with BD were evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) to assess manic symptoms and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) to assess depressive symptoms. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) was used to evaluate the general functions of the patients. Body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, and triglyceride levels of the study group were statistically higher than those of the healthy controls (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.027, and p = 0.001 respectively). Plasma levels of vaspin were 0.978 ng/ml in patients with BD and 0.292 in the HC group (p < 0.001). Our study revealed associations between metabolic parameters/metabolic syndrome and vaspin plasma concentrations in patients with BD. Vaspin can play a specific role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in these subjects and can be a specific indicator substance in BD. Copyright (C) 2018, Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.