Background This study investigated attitudes towards teaching students with intellectual disability (ID) within a representative sample of secondary school physical education (PE) teachers, and to determine the effects of age, gender, teaching experience, and having acquaintance with ID and students with ID on their attitudes. Methods Participants were 729 secondary school PE teachers who worked in 81 major cities of Turkey. The Teachers Attitudes towards Children with Intellectual Disability Scale was administered. Results The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant effect on factors and total attitudes scores of gender and having students with ID. Significant effects on factors and total attitudes score were found in teaching experiences and having acquaintance with ID. Conclusions It is encouraged to maintain and further develop in-service education programmes of adapted physical activity for PE teachers.