Polyurethanes (PUs) are synthesized by the reaction of diisocyanates and diols and are widely used in furniture foams, thermal insulation, coatings, and adhesives. In this work, a 1,2,3-triazole-bridged dioxime (compound 6) as a diol source was synthesized from isomannide via tosylation, azidation, and cyclization-addition and used in the syntheses of new PUs. A new carbohydrate-based linear P-1 was synthesized by the reaction of 6 and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (1,6-HMDI). Besides, three new linear PUs (P-2, P-3, and P-4) were synthesized by the reaction of 6, isomannide compound (used in different molar ratios), and 1,6-HMDI. The thermal properties of the new PUs were determined by thermogravimetry (TG), their molecular structures were characterized by FTIR, H-1- and C-13-NMR, and the molecular weights of some polymers were determined by GPC/SEC. Additionally, the surface characteristics of the synthesized PUs were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM).