Evaluation of psychological stress and cortisol levels in males with and without gingivitis

Aral K., Mılward M., Cooper P., Çelik Güler Ö.

Annals of Medical Research, vol.27, no.5, pp.1459-1464, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


Aim: Gingivitis is a prevalent health problem seen most commonly in males. Psychological stress is also associated with periodontal disease. Thus, to evaluate the possible role of stress in gingivitis, this study investigated the psychological stress and cortisol levels in males with and without gingivitis. Material and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy males between 18 and 28 years were divided into two groups, including those with generalized gingivitis (G) (n=30) and periodontally healthy controls (H) (n=30). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva samples were obtained for determination of cortisol levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plaque (PI) and gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were noted. In addition, BECK depression inventory (BDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were recorded from all participants. Results: PI, GI, BOP (p<0.01), and PD (p<0.05) were significantly higher in group G. BDI, PSS, and OHIP-14 scores were not significantly different between groups (p>0.05). Cortisol levels in saliva and GCF were similar between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Psychological stress and cortisol levels in GCF and saliva were found to be similar in males with and without gingivitis.