INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol.16, no.1, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
This study aims to analyze whether the effect of shocks on the ecological footprint and its sub-accounts in the Big Ten emerging economies is transitory or not. To this end, we employ the Fourier augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test with a fractional frequency (FADF) and the recently developed fractional unit root test with a Fourier function (FUR) on annual data from 1961 to 2017. The results of the FADF unit root test suggest the validity of stationarity for about 30% of the series, while the FUR test indicates evidence of stationarity for almost all footprint series. These results imply that policy shocks to ecological footprints are temporary and policies to reduce environmental pollution in the Big Ten countries do not have the expected impact. Since shocks have temporary effects on ecological footprints, the Big Ten countries should not cause irreversible environmental degradation. The Big Ten governments need to implement permanent structural reforms to counteract the growth of the ecological footprint.