Background: The aim of this study was to calculate the radiation amount exposed during percutaneous nephrolithototomy (PCNL) and to make the urologists and other staff sensitive about the radiation risk they were exposed to. Materials and Methods: We measured the radiation exposure during 114 cases of PCNL performed. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed between the operation table and the patient at the location of kidney and gonads of patients to measure the radiation exposure of patients. TLD were placed at the head, neck, finger and the legs of the operating surgeon to measure the occupational exposure of the urologist. And also two dosimeters were placed to the inner wall of the operating room and two dosimeters were placed to the hall. Results: The mean fluoroscopy screening time was 2.18 minutes (0.15 - 6.12) and the mean operation time was 49 minutes (10-150). The mean radiation exposure for patients was 1.307 milisievert (mSv) at kidney location and 0.562 mSv at gonad location per procedure. Surgeon exposure was 0.021 and 0.003 mSv per procedure for hand and leg, respectively. Radiation amounts exposed inside the room and by the surgeon were statistically significantly lower than measured radiation results compared to patient kidney. Conclusion: According to our findings radiation exposure of the patient and the surgeon is below the annual occupational dose limit recommendations. However, for protecting from stochastic effects of radiation, fluoroscopy should be used as low as possible and lead aprons and thyroid shields must be worn to minimize the radiation exposure.