The aim of the current study was to determine the frequency of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene pathogenic variants in 60 children diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and to compare the phenotype-genotype correlation. Genomic DNA was isolated by the spin-column method from peripheral blood samples (collected in vacutainers containing EDTA) and buccal smears. The MEFV gene profiles for the current FMF cohort were genotyped by pyrosequencing and direct Sanger sequencing techniques for the target pathogenic variants. The most prominent clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (53.4%), fever (23.4%) and arthritis (23.3%). Eighteen different pathogenic variants were identified and the most frequent were p. Met694Val (20.0%), p. Glu148Gln (13.3%), p. Met680 Ile (11.7%) and p. Arg202Gln (11.7%). Abdominal pain, fever and arthritis were the most common presenting clinical characteristics. Results showed that not only clinical characteristics, but also genotyping of the MEFV gene is needed to establish the correct diagnosis of FMF in children and other family members.