A new impedimetric immunosensor was fabricated for detection of Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) by using semi-conductive poly(2-thiophen-3-yl-malonic acid) (P3-TMA) as an immobilization matrix material and anti-IL-1 beta antibody as a biorecognition element for the first time. The polymer P3-TMA bound onto hydroxylated ITO surface via ester bond to form a polymer interface including active carboxyl groups. These reactive carboxyl groups bound to anti-IL-1 beta antibodies via amide bond under coupling reagent of N-beta-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide. The detection of IL-1 beta antigen was monitored with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique (EIS). Apart from EIS technique, cyclic voltammetry (CV), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for characterization of immunosensor. The effect of antibody and antigen incubation durations, and utilized biorecognition element concentrations were investigated to determine the optimum analytical performance of the immunosensor. Under optimized conditions, the relative change in impedance was proportional to the IL-1 beta concentration in the range of 0.01-3 pg/mL with the detection limit 3 fg/mL. The proposed immunosensor had good specificity, reproducibility and stability. The immunosensor was applicable for detection of IL-1 beta in human serum and saliva samples with satisfied recoveries (97.4-104.5%). (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.