Objective: It is known that general and local anesthesia practices disrupt the delicate balance of thermoregulation center which is already sensitive to very tiny differences of temperatures in a normal subject. We aimed to evaluate and compare the rectal temperatures of newborns born with normal vaginal delivery and cesarean section.Methods: We performed a prospective study of 106 term newborn - 40 born with normal vaginal delivery (group 1) and 66 born with cesarean section [51 spinal anesthesia (group 2), 15 general anesthesia (group 3)]. Only term babies were included in the study. Babies of eclamptic, pre-eclamptic and diabetic mothers and babies with chronic systemic diseases were excluded. Pregnants who underwent elective cesarean section were included in the study. Adolescent pregnants, pregnants with increased risks and pregnants with complicated operations were excluded. Mothers' temperatures were measured before and after the interventions. Rectal temperatures of the babies were measured immediately after birth.Results: Environmental temperature was maintained at 22-24 degrees C. Pre-operative mother temperatures were 36.310.30 degrees C in group 1, 36.36 +/- 0.26 degrees C in group 2 and 36.39 +/- 0.19 degrees C in group 3 (p=0.414). Post-operative mother temperatures were 36.39 +/- 0.27 degrees C in group 1, 36.29 +/- 0.31 degrees C in group 2 and 36.25 +/- 0.28 degrees C in group 3 (p=0.215). Rectal temperatures of the babies born with normal vaginal delivery were significantly higher than the others. It was lowest in the general anesthesia group (37.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 37.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C and 36.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The temperature differences between groups were statistically significant p<0.001).Conclusions: In conclusion, it is worthy to note that temperatures of the newborns can differ according to the delivery mode. Physicians and health professionals that take care of the newborns should be aware of this difference.