Biological Activities and Biochemical Composition of Endemic Achillea fraasii

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Tunca-Pinarli Y., Benek A., Turu D., Bozyel M. E., CANLI K., Altuner E. M.

Microorganisms, vol.11, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/microorganisms11040978
  • Journal Name: Microorganisms
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Achillea fraasii, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, antioxidant activity, antibiofilm activity, GC-MS
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antibiofilm activities and the biochemical composition of Achillea fraasii. The antimicrobial activity of A. fraasii ethanol extract (AFEt) was tested against 48 strains, and this is the first study testing the antimicrobial activity of this plant to this extent. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay, and the antibiofilm activity of A. fraasii aqueous extract (AFAq) against five strains was assessed. The chemical composition of the plant extract was determined using GC-MS with artemisia ketone (19.41%) as the main component. The findings indicated that AFEt displayed antimicrobial activity against 38 strains, with a particular efficacy observed against various Staphylococcus aureus strains, such as S. aureus ATCC 25923, clinically isolated, multidrug resistant (MDR), and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. In addition, the highest activity was observed against Enterococcus faecium. Moreover, the extract demonstrated activity against Candida strains. The plant extract also showed relatively good antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid, with an EC50 value of 55.52 µg/mL. However, AFAq acted as a biofilm activator against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, increasing the biofilm formation by 2.63-fold. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the potential of A. fraasii as a source of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.