The Old Turkic Title Buyruq Reconsidered

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Erkoç H. İ.

Acta Orientalia, vol.76, no.4, pp.543-569, 2023 (AHCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1556/062.2023.00278
  • Journal Name: Acta Orientalia
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, IBZ Online, Periodicals Index Online, L'Année philologique, Historical Abstracts, Index Islamicus, Linguistic Bibliography, MLA - Modern Language Association Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.543-569
  • Keywords: administrative organization, Buyruq, dignitaries, Eurasian Peoples, ministers, Old Turkic, titles, Türk Qaghanate
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


First attested among the administrative titles used in the Türk Qaghanate, the Old Turkic title Buyruq was used by various Eurasian steppe peoples and polities from the 6th to the 13th centuries. In this paper, examples of the title Buyruq seen in historical sources are identified and examined, while different views put forth by modern scholars up to the present day are also brought together. Apparently, instead of indicating a fixed ministerial office or a commandership, this title, generally understood as meaning 'having received an order', indicates a position for dignitaries that was bestowed by rulers upon officials who were holding numerous administrative titles and were also tasked with certain duties by their rulers.