Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a novel marker of tissue ischemia. Nowadays, IMA is accepted as a marker of oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed at establishing an association between IMA and hyperglycemia, blood pressure, lipid parameters, microvascular complications, hsCRP, and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes patients without overt macrovascular disease and acute ischemia. Fifty type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without a history of macrovascular disease or end-stage renal disease were enrolled into the study. Age-matched 30 healthy individuals were also included in the study as a control group. Plasma IMA (0.329 +/- A 0.046 and 0.265 +/- A 0.045 AbsU; P < 0.0001) and hsCRP levels (0.51 +/- A 0.36 and 0.32 +/- A 0.17 mg/dl; P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared to healthy controls. IMA level was significantly correlated with hsCRP (r = 0.76; P < 0.0001), HbA1c (r = 0.72; P < 0.0001), microalbuminuria (r = 0.40; P = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.28; P = 0.049), diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.44; P = 0.005), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.42; P = 0.005) levels in the entire diabetic subjects. In the diabetic patients group, presence of microalbuminuria was associated with a higher plasma IMA level (0.355 +/- A 0.035 and 0.265 +/- A 0.0045 AbsU; P < 0.0001, patients with microalbuminuria and control subjects, respectively). In the type 2 diabetes patients with nephropathy, IMA level (0.355 +/- A 0.035 and 0.311 +/- A 0.046 AbsU; P = 0.002) was determined higher compared to the diabetes patients without nephropathy. Diabetic patients without an overt cardiovascular disease still have a higher serum IMA level compared to healthy controls. The correlation of high plasma IMA levels with high hsCRP and microalbuminuria levels in diabetic subjects indicates the presence of a chronic ischemic process. Therefore, elevated IMA levels may indicate an underlying subclinical vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.