Microbial (psychrotrophic, mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriacae counts), and chemical analysis [pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N), lipid oxidation (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, TBARS)] of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fillets in air (control), vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with various gas mixtures conditions at 4+/-1 degreesC were determined. The gas mixtures evaluated were 100% CO2, 2.5% O-2+7.5% N-2+90% CO2 and 30% O-2+30% N-2+40% CO2. Psychrotrophic bacteria count was above 1 x 10(7) cfu/g on the 12th day in 100% CO2. However; mesophilic bacteria count was below 1 x 10(6) cfu/g at the end of the 14-day storage period. Enterobacteriaceae count was significantly lower in samples packaged with MAP. Lipid oxidation increased rapidly after 6 days of storage in the samples containing 30% O-2. While minimum TBARS values were recorded in fillets containing 100% CO2 and vacuumed fillets, the lowest TVB-N values were obtained in fillets with 100% CO2. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.