This study aimed to compare the labellum and spur papillae and also the papillae types as taxonomic characters to circumscribe taxa of the genus Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski distributed in Anatolia (Turkey). Plant samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia, especially the Black Sea Region. Ten species were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The papillae and epidermis cell size of the taxa were measured and statistically compared. The papillae of the labellum were morphologically similar among the species, except for the surface striation. Spur papillae are different from the labellum papillae. Dactylorhiza characteristics such as labellum papillae shape and surface ornamentation, spur papillae shape, spur shape, and spur/ovary rate are relevant for the taxonomy of the genus.