Observational Collective Efficacy Scale for Sport (OCESS): Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Form

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ŞENEL E., YILDIZ M., GÖRGÜLÜ R., Adilogullari I.

Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi (Online), vol.28, no.1, pp.55-62, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier


The study aimed to analyze the Observational Collective Efficacy Scale for Sport (OCESS). 242 Turkish athletes and 85 Turkish coaches participated in the study. After performing the first step for the language validity of the scale by using the translation-back translation method, it was sent to the athletes as an online form. Athletes responded to the items voluntarily. KMO and Bartlett’s test of sphericity values were calculated to determine whether the data was proper for factor analysis. The initial factor structure of the scale was tested with CFA. While the Pearson correlation test was used for criterion-related validity, the internal consistency coefficient was calculated with Cronbach’s alpha. While KMO was found to be 0.84, Bartlett’s test of sphericity was statistically significant. The item factor loadings ranged between 0.64 and 0.88. In sum, the Turkish version of the OCESS presents acceptable psychometric properties and may be used to assess athletes’ collective efficacy beliefs in team sports repeatedly.