Data from a field experiment conducted in western Turkey over 3-year period (2001-2004) were used to determine the energy balance of continuous winter wheat as affected by three tillage systems under rainfed conditions in Mediterranean climate. Tillage systems included mouldboard plough, rototiller and tandem disk As inputs, the factors supplied and controlled by farmers were considered The energy balance was assessed by comparing the variables: net energy output (energy output minus energy input), energy output/input ratio, and energy productivity (wheat grain yield per unit energy input). According to 3-year mean, the grain yield ranking from the highest to the lowest was rototiller>disk>plough, indicating that grain yield increased as tillage decreased The total energy inputs were 1.8 and 1.1 times greater in rototiller than in disk and plough, respectively. Rototiller required higher energy input for energy used in production of rototiller than disk (46.53% less) and plough (6.93% less). Energy output was highest in rototiller. Hence, the highest net energy was found in rototiller (26%) than in plough and disk while the difference between both was less. Output/input ratio and energy productivity was higher in disk than in plough and rototiller. This indicates that, in terms of energy efficiency, the viability of rototiller (low-input field practises, high yields and net energy) under rainfed conditions, compared to plough requiring high-input field practices (low yields and net energy), would appear more recommendable. In addition, both rototiller and disk systems improve the energy efficiency of wheat production compared with plough.