Bile acids inhibit Mcl-1 protein turnover via an epidermal growth factor receptor/Raf-1-dependent mechanism

Yoon J., Werneburg N., Higuchi H., Canbay A., Kaufmann S., Akgul C., ...More

CANCER RESEARCH, vol.62, no.22, pp.6500-6505, 2002 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 62 Issue: 22
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Journal Name: CANCER RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.6500-6505
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Bile acids have been implicated in biliary tract carcinogenesis, in part, by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of Mcl-1, a potent antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, has also been reported in cholangiocarcinomas. Because receptor tyrosine kinases like EGFR may modulate antiapoptotic protein expression, we examined the hypothesis that bile acids modulate Mcl-1 expression levels via EGFR. Deoxycholate increased cellular Mcl-1 protein in a concentration-dependent manner. The deoxycholate-mediated increase of cellular Mci-l protein was blocked equally by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or an EGFR-neutralizing antibody. Although inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases did not attenuate the deoxycholate-associated increase in Mcl-1 protein, the Raf-1 inhibitor, BAY 37-9751, effectively blocked the cellular increase of this protein. Neither Mcl-1 transcriptional activity nor its mRNA stability was altered by deoxycholate treatment. However, Mcl-1 protein stability was increased by bile acid treatment, an effect duplicated by proteasome inhibition. Deoxycholate prolongation of Mcl-1 turnover was blocked by either EGFR inhibitors or the Raf-1 inhibitor. Whereas the deoxycholate-induced increase in Mcl-1 reduced Fas-mediated apoptosis, the Raf-1 inhibitor potentiated Fas apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that bile acids block Mcl-1 protein degradation via activation of an EGFR/Raf-1 cascade resulting in its cellular accumulation. Raf-1 inhibitors block this increase of Mcl-1 and render the cells more susceptible to apoptosis, a potential therapeutic strategy for cholangiocarcinomas.