A 57-year old man was referred to our hospital with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea of 6 years duration. He had an episode of meningitis 2 months previously. CT cisternography and cranial MRI revealed a defect in the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus, with an anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele. Surgery was performed transcranially through a pterional approach. The temporal encephalocele was amputated, the sphenoid sinus obliterated and the dural defect repaired. Lumbar drainage was used for 5 days after surgery. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea is only infrequently due to temporal encephalocele. Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephaloceles are the least common type of temporal encephalocele, with only 12 reported in the literature. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.