Bacteria, viruses, and parasites are harmful microorganisms that cause infectious diseases. Early detec-tion of diseases is critical to prevent disease transmission and provide epidemic preparedness, as these can cause widespread deaths and public health crises, particularly in resource-limited countries. Lateral flow assay (LFA) systems are simple-to-use, disposable, inexpensive diagnostic devices to test biomarkers in blood and urine samples. Thus, LFA has recently received significant attention, especially during the pandemic. Here, first of all, the design principles and working mechanisms of existing LFA methods are examined. Then, current LFA implementation strategies are presented for communicable disease di-agnoses, including COVID-19, zika and dengue, HIV, hepatitis, influenza, malaria, and other pathogens. Furthermore, this review focuses on an overview of current problems and accessible solutions in detecting infectious agents and diseases by LFA, focusing on increasing sensitivity with various detection methods. In addition, future trends in LFA-based diagnostics are envisioned.(c) 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.