Investigating the persistence of shocks on the ecological balance: Evidence from G10 and N11 countries

Pata U. K., Yilanci V.

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION, vol.28, pp.624-636, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.spc.2021.06.027
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.624-636
  • Keywords: Ecological balance, Ecological footprint, Fourier function, Quantile unit root test, Sustainability, OIL-PRICE SHOCK, UNIT-ROOT TEST, POLICY SHOCKS, GREAT CRASH, FOOTPRINT, EMISSIONS, OECD, SUSTAINABILITY, CONVERGENCE, DYNAMICS
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


The number of studies examining environmental impacts on both the supply and demand side is limited in the literature. Thereby, an ecological balance analysis provides a broad framework for the applicability and sustainability of environmental policies. This study is the first to examine the stationarity properties of per capita ecological balance of G10 and N11 countries from 1961 to 2016. To this end, the study employs a series of conventional unit root tests, a quantile unit root test, and a recently introduced quantile unit root test with smooth breaks. Of these tests, the Fourier quantile test is the most effective because it allows asymmetries, nonlinearities, and smooth structural changes. The results of the Fourier quantile unit root test indicate that the per capita ecological balance is nonstationary in Nigeria, the Philippines, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, while it is stationary for the remaining 16 countries. We also found evidence of a unit root in the ecological balance series of both groups of countries at lower quantiles while rejecting the null hypothesis of a unit root for high quantiles. Overall, the empirical results suggest that positive or negative shocks to ecological balance have a more persistent effect in G10 countries than in N11 countries. All the findings provide important policy implications for both developed and developing countries to achieve ecological sustainability and enhance environmental quality. (C) 2021 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.