This study deals with the structure of decapod crustacean assemblages and their relationships with biotic and abiotic conditions in Canakkale Strait in 2006 and 2007. A total of 45 Decapod species were found, of which one species (Calliax lobata) is recorded for the first time from Turkish waters, four species are new for the Turkish Strait System and 11 species for the Canakkale Strait. Number of species, abundance, richness and biodiversity were negatively correlated to sand percentage and positively correlated to TOC values. In addition, ABC analysis showed that Canakkale Strait is subjected to natural stress. Hydrodynamic conditions have been recognised as the most important natural stress factor. While seasonal changes were not statistically significant, differences in biomass and species number were statistically important among stations, clearly separating eastern from western costs. Spring could be considered as decapods reproductive period in Canakkale Strait. Four different feeding types were distinguished, carnivors being the dominant one in the area. Athanas nitescens and Pisidia blutelii were the most important species, representing 62.6 % of the total abundance. These dominant species were significantly correlated with different sediment variables (percentage of sand, medium gravel and fine gravel). Different feeding mode and niche partitioning are advantageous for survival in such a harsh environment. No alien decapods were found in the study area, but during warm seasons, the presence of the invasive macroalga Caulerpa racemosa in the southeastern part of Canakkale Strait could favour some scavenger decapod species.