BIOLOGIA, vol.77, no.5, pp.1231-1247, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Besides aromatic characteristics of the other oregano species, essential oil of Origanum acutidens has lethal effects on some cancer lines. This study was performed to determine genetic diversity in the 70 oregano (Odostomia acutidens) genotypes based on several agro-morphological traits and start codon targeted (SCoT) markers in the endemic spread zone of O. acutidens. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the first two components accounted for 79.56% of the total agro-morphological variation. Cluster analysis based on phenotypic data grouped all investigated genotypes into three main clusters. GGE Biplot analysis indicated that genotype numbers as G35, G11, G24, G10, and G22 with the lowest interaction with different environments were more stable than the others ones. Taking into account all analyses, genotype numbers G36, G12, G10, and G33 were selected as ideal materials. In the molecular section, 10 SCoT primers generated 109 polymorphic fragments. The mean value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.36. The mean number of effective alleles (Ne), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.63, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm grouped the 70 investigated genotypes into three main clusters. Mantel test showed no correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in these individual (r = 0.01, p = 0.69). Moreover, population structure analysis showed that all genotypes formed three sub-populations. In general, population structure of the 70 investigated oregano genotypes collected from different origins of Turkey were successfully characterized with the aid of SCoT markers. Our results suggest that evaluation of genetic diversity and structure analysis in the natural populations could efficiently provide comprehensive information for conservation of endemic and endangered species that can be used in future breeding programs.