This paper is a review of recent data exploring the subsistence patterns of the prehistoric populations living between 12 ka and 6 ka BP on the long and narrow Gallipoli (Gelibolu) Peninsula, situated between the Marmara and Aegean Seas. Located in southern Thrace, the sea level fluctuations were different in the north and south of the peninsula. Previously, the earliest human occupation traces from Southern Turkish Thrace came from Neolithic sites ca. 8500 BP, including Hoca Cesme, Hamaylitarla and Kaynarca. In 2011, reconnaissance work discovered clear indications of Palaeolithic localities including Ucdutlar that may date as early as Early Upper Paleolithic. On the Gallipoli Peninsula, a site of nearly 2.5 ha yielded a prehistoric flaked stone industry, with traits earlier than Neolithic. Despite the proximity of this Palaeolithic site to the sea, the Neolithic sites on the peninsula are usually found far from the coast, some km inland. Research is in the initial steps to discover the whole history of Southern Turkish Thrace. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.