Heavy Metals in Soil and Sand from Playgrounds of canakkale City (Turkey), and Related Health Risks for Children

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PARLAK M., Tuncay T., Botsou F.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.14, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su14031145
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: trace elements, urban soil, playgrounds, sandboxes, risk assessment, exposure pathways, health hazard, TRACE-ELEMENTS, POLLUTION, PARKS, DUST, INGESTION, EXPOSURE
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Children spend most of their time in playgrounds and, in parallel, constitute the social group most sensitive to contaminants. Here, we present the results of a comparative study of heavy-metal contents between soils and sand from sandboxes obtained from playgrounds of canakkale city. Average contents of soils followed the order of iron (Fe) (12,901 mg kg(-1)) > manganese (Mn) (475 mg kg(-1)) > zinc (Zn) (58 mg kg(-1)) > copper (Cu) (28 mg kg(-1)) > nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) (21 mg kg(-1)) > lead (Pb) (18 mg kg(-1)). Sand had lower contents, however, due to the reduction of particles size through prolonged use, and accumulation of Fe/Mn (oxyhydr)oxides on sand grains tended to diminish the differences between soils and sand. Through chemometric analysis, Cr and Ni were found to have a lithogenic origin, while the rest of metals were related to anthropogenic activities. Spatially, heavy-metal contents followed the pattern of the city's sprawl. Risk estimates on children's health showed that ingestion was the most important exposure route, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Exposure of children to sand was of similar importance to that of soils. These findings are significant, as the contamination of sand has not yet received much attention compared to the soil of playgrounds.