Maltose, a natural disaccharide, was crosslinked with divinyl sulfone to prepare poly(maltose) (p(MAL)) micro/nanoparticles via one step microemulsion system with >= 90% +/- 5% yield in a size rage of 0.5-100 mu m for the first time. P(MAL) was modified (m-p(MAL)) with ethylenediamine (EDA), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and taurine (TA) to render additional functionalities, that is, amine and sulfate groups. The isoelectronic point of bare p(MAL) particles were calculated at pH 2.2 +/- 0.5 and was changed to 1.3 +/- 0.5, 4.3 +/- 1.0, and 8.1 +/- 0.7 for TA (p(MAL)/TA), EDA (p(MAL)/EDA), and PEI (p(MAL)/PEI) modification, respectively. Bare p(MAL) particles were found to be biocompatible up to 2 mg/ml with hemolysis and blood clotting tests, whereas the modified p(MAL) particles were found to be biocompatible at 1 mg/ml concentration. Additionally, it was found that TA- and PEI-modified p(MAL) particles induced blood clotting mechanisms. Sodium diclofenac as model drug was released at proportions of 8.7% +/- 1.3%, 3.9% +/- 0.2%, 8.8% +/- 0.9%, and 31.6% +/- 0.4% of the loaded drug in phosphate buffered saline solution from p(MAL), p(MAL)/TA, p(MAL)/EDA, and p(MAL)/PEI, respectively. The inhibition of antimicrobial activity of p(MAL)/PEI particles at 20 mg/ml concentration forEscherichia coliandStaphylococcus aureusstrain was determined as 99.86% +/- 0.3% and 99.79% +/- 0.25%, respectively.