Cybersecure and scalable, token-based renewable energy certificate framework using blockchain-enabled trading platform

Cali U., Kuzlu M., Sebastian-Cardenas D. J., ELMA O., Pipattanasomporn M., Reddi R.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, vol.106, no.2, pp.1841-1852, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 106 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00202-022-01688-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Compendex, INSPEC, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.1841-1852
  • Keywords: Renewable energy certificate, Distributed ledger technology, NIST cybersecurity frameworks, TECHNOLOGY
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Decarbonization of energy systems has been a recent trend during the last two decades where large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) are integrated into the modern power systems. Various countries have developed new energy policy instruments, such as Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), to promote the growth of RES. RECs are tradable, non-tangible assets, which have a monetary value. Tracking and certification of the origin of an energy resource regardless of its type (e.g., a conventional power plant or RES) are a critical operation. In addition to the certification of origin, trading transactions must be performed using a secure method. Energy industry participants need to secure the data and applications related to RECs. Digitalization technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and distributed ledger technology (DLT) are among the most popular and promising options. DLT is a perfect framework that can support such REC functionalities. This paper addresses the cybersecurity aspects in REC trading using blockchain and distributed ledger technology, considering detailed cybersecurity perspectives and aspects of adopting technology from an organizational perspective.