UROONKOLOJI BULTENI-BULLETIN OF UROONCOLOGY, vol.14, no.2, pp.102-107, 2015 (ESCI)
Prostate cancer, is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and in many parts of the world and ranks 2nd in death from cancer among men. Lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is 16%. Currently the only accepted screening tool Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). PSA is a specific biomarker but non-specific for prostate cancer. In diseases such as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis high serum PSA levels can be detected. Therefore, identifying prostate cancer only with serum PSA measurement has lower specificity and may lead to false positive results and unnecessary biopsies. Some encountered problems such as unnecessary diagnoses of clinically insignificant cancer and the non-diagnosis of early stage cancers can take. In recent years there are too many studies to investigate new biomarkers for replacing or helping PSA. The aim of this article was the evaluation of the current situation for PSA and non-PSA tissue and serum biomarkers which are published.