Effects of the socio-economic-cultural structure of football spectators on the tendency towards violence (Manisaspor case)


Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, vol.16, no.2, pp.41-49, 2014 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise
  • Page Numbers: pp.41-49
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to search socio-economic-cultural reasons which are thought to be effective in the violence and aggression of audience of Manisaspor football team. For this purpose, it offers suggestions to identify violence and aggressions problems in football fields and find solutions to them. The study group is formed by 500 Manisaspor football fans who watched seven teams’ games that competed in the 2011-2012 Spor Toto Super Lig season and who are chosen randomly. As the data collection tool, along with the audience's demographic information, a questionnaire oriented to determine the level of effectiveness of different reference groups on audience aggression was administered. Consistency coefficient in the questionnaire (Cronbach Alpha) was found 0.80 and was seen that it was in high reliability category. The frequency distribution and Chi-square analyses for findings were performed in statistic software. In the results; in the 41 and over age category of Manisaspor football fans, it is seen that their education level was high and they mostly knew the football rules. It is seen that they mostly watch Manisaspor's in-games, they are found to be quiet and compatible although they are largely affected by defeats of the team. Causes of violent tendencies of Manisaspor fans before the game are found as events of the past games and media publications, causes of violent during the game are found as referees' wrong attitudes and behaviors and opponent audience’s negative behaviors. In addition to this result, it is also found that mass communication affect aggression and violence.