Maize (Zea mays L.) landraces are considered to be important genetic resources for improving maize. To use these sources effectively, the extent of genetic diversity among them needs to be determined. While maize landraces from different countries have been evaluated, there is only limited information available on Turkish maize landraces. Thus, our objective was to investigate the genetic relations among 35 different landraces, along with inbred lines B73 and Mo17, using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We also measured seven kernel-quality traits, viz., protein content, oil content, zein content, lysine content, tryptophan content, and amylose/amylopectin content. Cluster analysis was performed to classify the Turkish maize landraces relative to protein-band variation. Results of protein-band analyses showed there was significant diversity among maize landraces. There was also considerable variation for the kernel-quality traits of the landraces. Kernel oil varied from 2.83% to 6.27%, protein from 6.67% to 11.34%, zein from 1.87% to 8.88%, tryptophan from 0.017% to 0.053%, lysine from 0.14% to 0.81%, amylose from 5.9% 37.6%, and amylopectin from 62.4% to 94.1% among the landraces. A total of 25 protein subunits, with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 110 kDa, were determined, and all of them, except for three bands, were polymorphic. Polymorphism information content (PIC) of the subunits ranged between 0.00 and 0.50. Maize landraces were classified into two main clusters; the first cluster included 18 landraces and inbred lines B73 and Mo17, whereas the second cluster comprised 17 maize landraces. Overall, results revealed that Turkish maize landraces having similar geographical origins were classified in the same clusters and exhibited a high level of diversity relative to protein subunits.