Carbazole-based Schiff base: A sensitive fluorescent ?turn-on? chemosensor for recognition of Al(III) ions in aqueous-alcohol media


ARABIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, vol.15, no.7, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2022.103935
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Schiff base, Fluorescent chemosensor, ESIPT, Al3+, Job?s plot, CHEF effect
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Carbazole-based Schiff base chemosensor was synthesized in one-pot synthesis using 2hydroxy-1-naphtaldehyde for fluorescent sensing of Al3+ ions. Characterization of the ligand (L) was revealed through spectroscopic and physicochemical techniques. The fluorescence emission responses of L to various metal ions and anions were investigated. The chelation was studied by UV???vis, 1H NMR, LC-MS/MS, fluorescence titration and Job???s plot analysis. Bathochromic shift resulted from charge transfer from L to electrophilic Al3+ ion was observed in the chelation of L with Al3+. The potentiality of L to be a distinguished probe to detect Al3+ ions was due to a chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect, concomitant with noticeable fluorescent enhancement. A significant fluorescence enhancement at 533 nm was observed in ethanol???water (1:1, v/v) solution upon addition of Al3+ along with a distinct color change from yellow to white. Non-fluorescent ligand exposed highly sensitive turn-on fluorescent sensor behavior for selectively sensing Al3+ ions via 1:1 (ligand:metal) stoichiometry. The ligand???s specificity in the existence of other tested metal ions and anions indicated no observation in color change. The ligand-Al3+ complex formation was reversible upon addition of chelating agent EDTA. The ligand interacted with Al3+ ions with an association constant of Ka = 5 x 104 M-1. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2.59 x 10-7 M. The synthesized Schiff base could efficiently detect Al3+ ions as a fluorescent sensor. ?? 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (